Advances in Surgical Pathology Gastric Cancer download pdf free

Advances in Surgical Pathology Gastric Cancer download pdf free – Download medical books pdf

INTRODUCTION
Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the stomach is vitally important in diagnosing disease. Without an accurate understanding of the normal structure and function of the stomach, both at the microscopic and macroscopic levels, it can be diffi cult to reliably recognize a pathologic condition. This chapter outlines the basic normal gastric anatomy, histology, and physiology.

Advances in Surgical Pathology: Gastric Cancer
EMBRYOLOGY
The stomach develops from the caudal aspect of the foregut. Starting around the fourth week after conception, the dorsal border grows faster than the ventral border, creating the lesser and greater curvatures. As the stomach grows, it rotates 90 degrees clockwise, with the ventral border rotating to become the lesser curvature and the dorsal border becoming the greater curvature. In addition, the cranial end moves to the left and the caudal end to the right. The endoderm of the primordial gut forms most of the mucosa of the digestive system. The splanchnic mesenchyme develops into most of the muscle, connective tissue, and associated surrounding soft tissue.1
ANATOMY
The stomach lies anterior to the pancreas and extends from just below the diaphragm to its junction with the duodenum. The stomach is surrounded by a rich vascular and neural network, which controls both the secretory action of the stomach and its muscular contractions. The stomach is divided into four main anatomic regions: the cardia, fundus, body (corpus), and antrum. The cardia receives the food from the esophagus, is located just distal to the esophagus, and extends past the esophagus by a few centimeters. The fundus is formed by the left superior aspect of the stomach, which lies under the left diaphragm, and is limited inferiorly by a horizontal line drawn to the left of the incisura cardiaca. The body (corpus) is the largest anatomic region of the stomach, is located between the fundus and antrum, and is bound inferiorly by a line passing from the incisura angularis (on the lesser curvature) to the greater curvature. Distal to the body lies the pyloric antrum, which extends distally to the sulcus intermedius, after which the stomach becomes the pyloric canal. When the stomach is in a nondistended state, prominent rugae (folds) are present on the mucosal surface and are most prominent in the gastric body. As the stomach dilates, these rugae become less apparent.2

Advances in Surgical Pathology: Gastric Cancer provides a concise, updated review of the pathological characteristics of gastric cancer, with an emphasis on exploring practical issues and recent developments. The book features current and emerging concepts in the field of gastric cancer, a disease whose management requires a multidisciplinary approach in which pathology plays a key role. Its six sections cover the essential histopathology of gastric cancer as well as related topics such as imaging evaluation, molecular diagnosis, and personalized treatment, among other areas of interest. Individual chapters written by international experts in the fields of pathology, gastrointestinal medical oncology, cancer epidemiology, and gastrointestinal radiology, address the fundamental issues surrounding gastric cancer, including its epidemiology, basic diagnostic features, differential diagnoses, pitfalls and complications, and treatments. Endoscopic evaluation and histology correlation are emphasized. The screening, clinical management, and treatment of gastric cancer are summarized in related book sections. Recent findings regarding the roles of immunohistochemistry and molecular testing in the diagnosis, prognosis, and personalized treatment of gastric cancer are also reviewed. The book also includes current knowledge regarding the molecular alteration of gastric cancer carcinogenesis and its impact on patient care.

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