Cancer Biomarkers in Body Fluids: Principles pdf download free

Cancer Biomarkers in Body Fluids: Principles pdf download free

Cancer is a complex, multifaceted, dynamic, and progressive disease that continues to plague the world. With improved quality of life and increasing life expectancy, and yet our inability to completely curtail the intricate oncogenic networks, the incidence and prevalence of cancer is likely to continue to increase. Obviously, this trend will reflect adversely on health economics and quality of life. Even more worrisome is the fact that the burden of cancer currently rests heavily on resourcepoor regions of the world. Primary prevention is the ideal approach to cancer control. However, the challenges with successful implementation of cancer prevention programs are obvious, and not all cancers are easily amenable to such control measures.


Therefore, the utility of biomarkers offers a positive dimension in this effort. These objectively measurable entities that are reflective of normal and pathologic states offer solutions to early detection and prevention of cancer. Additionally, the presence of affordable efficacious pharmaceutical agents should help with early effective disease control and improved quality of life. Thus, the ability to develop valid, safe, and effective biomarkers is commendable. Such valid biomarkers are certifiable by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for clinical applications and are very useful cost-effective means for accelerating the drug development process. The word biomarker has a very broad meaning. However, with the completion of the human genome project and development of advanced technologies, the importance of the molecular genetic landscape of cancer is being appreciated at a much higher resolution. The ability to identify, validate, and fit these molecular biomarkers into routine laboratory medicine and molecular imaging holds tremendous value. The liquid biopsy concept ushers in a new era of practice. Not only does liquid biopsy fit into routine clinical practice, but it also overcomes tumor heterogeneity, as well as enabling the study of tumor evolution that is critical to developing novel effective therapeutic agents. An important challenge to partly resolving the global cancer disparities is the ability to translate and impact the underserved with all these discoveries and developments. Advances in technology, including microfluidics and nanofluidics, vii enable the development of miniaturized devices (the lab-on-a-chip concept) that can be deployed at remote settings. Coupling the use of such devices at the point of care with telemedicine should partly bridge the gap in global cancer statistics between the resource-rich and resource-poor communities. This book covers the general principles of cancer biomarkers in body fluids and their potential clinical applications. Chapter 1 is the synthesis of the molecular pathology of cancer as the “treasure chest” of cancer biomarkers. Chapter 2 details the liquid biopsy phenomenon and cancer biomarkers. Chapter 3 provides an overview of some advanced technologies in cancer biomarker analysis. Chapter 4 addresses the general applications and analytical principles and challenges of assaying methylated circulating tumor genomes. Chapter 5 details the concept of circulating tumor DNA and the longitudinal analysis of cancer mutations in patient management. Chapter 6 critically examines the potential of cancer mitochondrial genome alterations in body fluids. Chapter 7 examines the principles of miRNA as noninvasive cancer biomarkers. The roles of circulating tumor cells and tumorderived extracellular vesicles as cancer biomarkers that are being developed for clinical applications are detailed in Chapters 8 and 9, respectively. Finally, Chapter 10 examines the challenges to biomarker development and provides guidance on how to navigate the regulatory path to successful biomarker evaluation and use in the drug development process

The molecular and genetic signatures of cancer are represented in the peripheral circulation and other body fluids, giving rise to the “liquid biopsy” concept. This new paradigm of molecular profiling of cancer cells offers several advantages over traditional tissue biopsy. It is convenient, noninvasive, conforms to current clinical practice, enables real time disease monitoring and the study of tumor evolution, can easily be sampled multiple times, and this sample is more representative of the heterogeneous cancer cells than biopsy sampling. Indeed, all aspects of cancer molecular genetic information, stemming from DNA (both nuclear and mitochondria), RNA (coding and noncoding), peptides and proteins, metabolites and lipids are present in body fluids as free, cell surface bound or enclosed in membrane vesicles, and are being harnessed for disease management. Additionally, circulating tumor, and tumor stem cells provide prognostic information, and also enable the study of the intricate molecular processes associated with metastasis and drug resistance. This treatise deals with the general principles of the molecular pathology of cancer, and its associated imprints in circulation. The transitional process from discovery, prototype development, translational research, to product development can be complex and costly. The critical path to biomarker development and qualification for successful use in drug development is detailed herein as well.

This book is of interest to Cancer Researchers, Oncologists, Clinicians, Surgeons, Medical Students, Nurses, Diagnostic Laboratories, and Pharmaceutical Industries.??

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