Free The Retina and its Disorders PDF Download Medicalbooks

Free The Retina and its Disorders PDF Download Medicalbooks

This selection of articles from the Encyclopedia of the Eye covering retina, optics/optic nerve and comparative topics constitutes the first reference for scientists, post docs, and graduate students with an interest beyond standard textbook materials. It covers the full spectrum of research on the retina – from the basic biochemistry of how nerve cells are created to information on neurotransmitters, comparisons of the structure and neuroscience of peripheral vision systems in different species, and all the way through to injury repair and other clinical applications.

  • The first single volume to integrate comparative studies into a comprehensive resource on the neuroscience of the retina
  • Chapters are carefully selected from the Encyclopedia of the Eye by one of the world’s leading vision researchers
  • The best researchers in the field provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results

The ability to image cones at high resolution with AO
opened a crucial window to examine both normal and
abnormal processes in the retina. AO has made possible
the first measurements of the antenna properties of single
cones in the living human eye. Cone photoreceptors concentrate the image-forming light that passes through the
pupil in the photopigment of the outer segment while
simultaneously excluding stray light from sources that do
not contribute to a sharp retinal image. This beneficial
effect of the waveguide nature of cones gives rise to the
psychophysical effect known as the Stiles and Crawford
effect, in which the sensitivity of the eye declines dramatically for light beams that enter the margin instead of the
center of the pupil. Austin Roorda and David Williams at
the University of Rochester showed that nearby cones are
remarkably well aligned with each other optically so that
the angular tuning of a large group of cones is similar to the
tuning function for a single cone.
Single cones imaged with AO in the living human eye
show a striking variability in reflectance on a time scale of
hours or days. The cause of this variability is unknown but
could be related to the process of disc shedding in the cone
outer segments. Don Miller at Indiana University has shown
that, especially when the incoming light is highly coherent,
there can be dramatic changes on very short time scales of
5–10 ms. These changes depend on the history of the cone’s
light exposure and provide an optical method to monitor to
the response of cones to light. Kate Grieve and Austin Roorda
have also reported increases in infrared reflectance following exposure to light that may provide an alternative method
to monitor functional activity in single cones in the retina.

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