Free Towards Ultrasound-guided Spinal Fusion Surgery pdf download

Free Towards Ultrasound-guided Spinal Fusion Surgery pdf download

Well over a million spinal fusions are performed worldwide each year, and these generally require the insertion of screws into the pedicles. Their exact placement is critical and made complex due to limited visibility of the spine, continuous bleeding in the exposed regions, and variability in morphologies. The high rate of screw misplacements reported in the literature (up to 20 %) is of major concern since such misplacements can place the surrounding vital structures at risk. A potential guidance method for determining the best screw trajectory is by the use of real-time ultrasound imaging similar to that used for intravascular imaging. Such a method needs to identify the structural boundaries, within which the trajectory must lie. A major challenge of imaging within bone is high signal attenuation.

Towards Ultrasound-guided Spinal Fusion Surgery

Towards Ultrasound-guided Spinal Fusion Surgery

The rapid increase of attenuation with frequency requires much lower frequencies (1–3 MHz) than those used in intravascular imaging. The work reported here represents an important fi rst step in developing a radial phased array capable of generating B-mode images that should allow the surgeon greatly improved accuracy in the placement of pedicle screws. Along with the background to this technique, the design and fabrication of a 32-element array are described. Long-term implications of this study should facilitate fast, safe, and cheap guidance of pedicle screws.

CONTENTS: Towards Ultrasound-guided Spinal Fusion Surgery

1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1 1.1 Spine Anatomy …………………………………………………………………………. 1 1.2 Spinal Fusion Surgery ……………………………………………………………….. 3 1.3 Screw Insertion in Spinal Fusion Procedure …………………………………. 3 1.4 Screw Misplacement: Error Rates and Clinical Signifi cance ………….. 4 1.5 Thesis Motivation and Objectives ………………………………………………. 6 1.6 Organization of This Book …………………………………………………………. 7 References ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 8 2 Background Review ………………………………………………………………………… 11 2.1 Educational Tools for Teaching Screw Insertion …………………………… 11 2.2 Navigation Techniques for Guided Screw Insertion ………………………. 14 2.2.1 Image-Guided Pedicle Screw Insertion …………………………….. 15 2.2.2 Non-imaging Techniques ………………………………………………… 25 2.3 Concluding Remarks …………………………………………………………………. 27 2.4 Preliminary Transducer Design Specifi cations ……………………………… 27 References ………………………………………………………………………………………..

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