Lung Cancer: Volume 1: Molecular Pathology Methods and Reviews

Lung Cancer: Volume 1: Molecular Pathology Methods and Reviews

The Methods in Molecular Medicine series is intended as a resource for both novice and experienced investigators attempting to diversify their tech- logical base in research. Lung Cancer: Volume 1: Molecular Pathology Me- ods and Reviews presents an overview of the current status of assays employed to detect and characterize the multitude of pathologies that contribute to the development of this deadly disease. As with all volumes in the Methods in Molecular Medicine series, the reader should find that each methods-based chapter provides clear instructions for the performance of various protocols, supplemented by additional technical notes that provide valuable insight. These notes are designed to enable the reader to acquire the techniques described with a proficiency not easily achieved by re- ing standard method formats. No volume can exhaustively cover every aspect of biological research and there will be gaps in this endeavor that one or another research group will id- tify. Each section herein could readily be expanded into a book in its own right. However, I have sought to include a spectrum of techniques that should allow for the acquisition of key skills in each area covered.

Contents
Preface ……………………………………………………………………………………………….v
Contents of Volume II………………………………………………………………………….. xi
Contributors …………………………………………………………………………………….. xvii
PART I. INTRODUCTION
1 Characteristic Genetic Alterations in Lung Cancer
Ignacio I. Wistuba and Adi F. Gazdar………………………………………….. 3
PART II. ETIOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF LUNG TUMORS
2 Clinical and Biological Relevance of Recently Defined Categories
of Pulmonary Neoplasia
Edward Gabrielson …………………………………………………………………… 31
3 Molecular Epidemiology of Human Cancer Risk: Gene–Environment
Interactions and p53 Mutation Spectrum in Human Lung Cancer
Kirsi Vähäkangas ……………………………………………………………………… 43
4 Neuroendocrine Phenotype of Small Cell Lung Cancer
Judy M. Coulson, Marta Ocejo-Garcia, and Penella J. Woll ………. 61
5 AIDS-Associated Pulmonary Cancers
Kushagra Katariya and Richard J. Thurer …………………………………. 75
PART III. MOLECULAR ABNORMALITIES IN LUNG CANCER
A. DETECTION OF ALTERATIONS IN THE CELL CYCLE
6 Abrogation of the RB-p16 Tumor Suppressor Pathway
in Human Lung Cancer
Joseph Geradts ………………………………………………………………………… 89
7 Sensitive Detection of Hypermethylated p16INK4a Alleles
in Exfoliative Tissue Material
Marcus Schuermann and Michael Kersting …………………………….. 101
B. DETECTION OF ALTERATIONS IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS
8 Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Lung Cancer
Gautam Maulik, Takashi Kijima, and Ravi Salgia …………………….. 113
9 Relationship of EGFR Signal-Transduction Modulation
by Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors to Chemosensitivity
and Programmed Cell Death in Lung Cancer Cell Lines
Wendong Lei, Patrick P. Koty, and Mark L. Levitt……………………. 127viii Contents
10 Detection of the Transcripts and Proteins
for the Transforming Growth Factor-β Isoforms
and Receptors in Mouse Lung Tumorigenesis
Using In Situ Hybridization and Immunohistochemistry
in Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections
Sonia B. Jakowlew and Jennifer Mariano ……………………………….. 145
11 Alterations in the Expression of Insulin-Like Growth Factors
and Their Binding Proteins in Lung Cancer
Carrie M. Coleman and Adda Grimberg …………………………………… 167
12 Screening of Mutations in the ras Family of Oncogenes
by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Ligase Chain Reaction
Alfredo Martínez, Teresa A. Lehman, Rama Modali,
and James L. Mulshine ……………………………………………………….. 187
13 Assays for Raf-1 Kinase Phosphorylation and Activity
in Human Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
Rajani K. Ravi and Barry D. Nelkin ………………………………………….. 201
14 γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase in Lung Cancer:
Effect on Cell Viability
Kristiina Järvinen, Ylermi Soini, and Vuokko L. Kinnula …………. 211
15 Localization of Cyclooxygenase-2 Protein Expression
in Lung Cancer Specimens by Immunohistochemical Analysis
Sarah A. Wardlaw and Thomas H. March ………………………………… 223
16 Non-RI Protocols for L-myc Allelotyping and Deletion Mapping
of Chromosome 1p in Primary Lung Cancers
Keiko Hiyama, Ciro Mendoza, and Eiso Hiyama ……………………… 231
C. DETECTION OF ALTERED CELL SURFACE MARKERS
17 Intercellular Adhesion Molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and LFA-1)
in Adenocarcinoma of Lung: Technical Aspects
Armando E. Fraire, Bruce A. Woda, Louis Savas,
and Zhong Jiang …………………………………………………………………. 243
18 MUC1 Expression in Lung Cancer
Eva Szabo ………………………………………………………………………………. 251
19 Altered Surface Markers in Lung Cancer: Lack of Cell-Surface
Fas/APO-1 Expression in Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma
May Allow Escape from Immune Surveillance
Yoshihiro Nambu and David G. Beer ………………………………………. 259Contents ix
D. DETECTION OF ALTERATIONS IN THE APOPTOTIC PATHWAY
20 Prognostic Relevance of Angiogenic, Proliferative,
and Apoptotic Factors in Lung Carcinomas: A Case Review
Manfred Volm and Reet Koomägi ……………………………………………. 269
21 Morphological Assessment of Apoptosis in Human Lung Cells
Lori D. Dwyer-Nield, David Dinsdale, J. John Cohen,
Margaret K. T. Squier, and Alvin M. Malkinson ……………………. 283
22 [D-Arg6, D-Trp7,9, NmePhe8] -Substance P (6-11) Activates JNK
and Induces Apoptosis in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells
via an Oxidant-Dependent Mechanism
Alison MacKinnon and Tariq Sethi………………………………………….. 299
23 Isolation of Cells Entering Different Programmed
Cell Death Pathways Using a Discontinuous Percoll Gradient
Patrick P. Koty, Haifan Zhang, Wendong Lei,
and Mark L. Levitt ……………………………………………………………….. 309
E. DETECTION OF ALTERATIONS IN LUNG CELL-DIRECTED ANGIOGENESIS
24 Angiogenesis, Metastasis, and Lung Cancer: An Overview
Amir Onn and Roy S. Herbst …………………………………………………… 329
25 Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Lung Cancer
Melissa Lim and David M. Jablons ………………………………………….. 349
26 Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression
in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
Kenneth J. O’Byrne, Jonathan Goddard,
Alexandra Giatromanolaki, and Michael I. Koukourakis ………. 357
27 Regulation of Angiostatin Mobilization
by Tumor-Derived Matrix Metalloproteinase-2
Marsha A. Moses and Michael S. O’Reilly ……………………………….. 375
28 In Vitro and In Vivo Assays for the Proliferative
and Vascular Permeabilization Activities
of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Its Receptor
Seiji Yano, Roy S. Herbst, and Saburo Sone …………………………… 391
F. DETECTION OF ALTERATIONS IN DNA REPLICATION AND REPAIR
29 Detection of Telomerase Activity in Lung Cancer Tissues
Keiko Hiyama and Eiso Hiyama ………………………………………………. 401
30 Analysis of Alterations in a Base-Excision Repair Gene
in Lung Cancer
Nandan Bhattacharyya and Sipra Banerjee …………………………….. 413PART IV. LUNG CANCER MODEL SYSTEMS
A. ANIMAL MODELS FOR LUNG CANCER
31 Induction of Lung Cancer by Passive Smoking
in an Animal Model System
Hanspeter Witschi ………………………………………………………………….. 441
32 Metastatic Orthotopic Mouse Models of Lung Cancer
Robert M. Hoffman………………………………………………………………….. 457
33 Lung-Specific Expression of Mutant p53 as a Mouse Model
for Lung Cancer
Kam-Meng Tchou-Wong and William N. Rom ………………………….. 465
34 Use of Nucleotide Excision Repair-Deficient Mice as a Model
for Chemically Induced Lung Cancer
David L. Cheo and Errol C. Friedberg ……………………………………… 481
B. ANIMAL MODELS FOR TUMOR METASTASES TO THE LUNG
35 Nude Mouse Lung Metastases Models of Osteosarcoma
and Ewing’s Sarcoma for Evaluating New Therapeutic Strategies
Shu-Fang Jia, Rong-Rong Zhou, and Eugenie S. Kleinerman….. 495
36 Tumor-Specific Metastasis to Lung
Using Reporter Gene-Tagged Tumor Cells
Lloyd A. Culp, Wen-Chang Lin, Nanette Kleinman,
Julianne L. Holleran, and Carson J. Miller …………………………… 507
C. MODELS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF TARGETED THERAPEUTICS
37 Cultures of Surgical Material from Lung Cancers: A Kinetic Approach
Bruce C. Baguley, Elaine S. Marshall,
and Timothy I. Christmas ……………………………………………………. 527
38 The Hollow Fiber Assay
Leslie-Ann M. Hall, Candice M. Krauthauser,
Roseanne S. Wexler, Andrew M. Slee, and Janet S. Kerr …….. 545
Index ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 567

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