Neurobiology of Brain Disorders: Biological Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

Neurobiology of Brain Disorders: Biological Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders PDF Download

Neurobiology of Brain Disorders is the first book directed primarily at basic scientists to offer a comprehensive overview of neurological and neuropsychiatric disease. This book links basic, translational, and clinical research, covering the genetic, developmental, molecular, and cellular mechanisms underlying all major categories of brain disorders. It offers students, postdoctoral fellows, and researchers in the diverse fields of neuroscience, neurobiology, neurology, and psychiatry the tools they need to obtain a basic background in the major neurological and psychiatric diseases, and to discern connections between basic research and these relevant clinical conditions.

This book addresses developmental, autoimmune, central, and peripheral neurodegeneration; infectious diseases; and diseases of higher function. The final chapters deal with broader issues, including some of the ethical concerns raised by neuroscience and a discussion of health disparities. Included in each chapter is coverage of the clinical condition, diagnosis, treatment, underlying mechanisms, relevant basic and translational research, and key unanswered questions. Written and edited by a diverse team of international experts, Neurobiology of Brain Disorders is essential reading for anyone wishing to explore the basic science underlying neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

Links basic, translational, and clinical research on disorders of the nervous system, creating a format for study that will accelerate disease prevention and treatment Covers a vast array of neurological disorders, including ADHD, Down syndrome, autism, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, TBI, Parkinson, Huntington, Alzheimer, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, depression, and pain
Illustrated in full color
Each chapter provides in-text summary points, special feature boxes, and research questions
Provides an up-to-date synthesis of primary source material

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Interest in understanding the basis of neurological and psychiatric disorders is thousands of years old. People of China and India, as well as the Egyptians and Greeks, all had ideas about how the brain worked and what
caused the occasional functional abnormalities that they observed. Moreover, they often developed interventions to relieve symptoms, if not treat the disease. Indeed, the origins of neuroscience probably go back even farther. For example, trephination of the skull is thought to have been practiced as long as 7000 years ago and may have been designed to release evil spirits believed to be the cause of brain disorders. Since then, some of the ancient treatments have been found to be quite effective and have even served as the basis for much more recent interventions. However, the modern era of inquiry into the neurobiological basis of brain disorders did not begin until the nineteenth century. Several milestones along the path of that inquiry can be identified; here we mention just a few.
Rauwolfa serpentina is a shrub from which the people of India have been making a medicinal tea for thousands of years.1,2 Among the many conditions for which it was used was “moon disease”, which we now recognize as psychosis. In the early 1950s it was determined that most of the tranquilizing effects of the plant extracts resulted from a compound that was named reserpine. Over the next decade, Arvid Carlsson and colleagues, working first at the US National Institutes of Health, then at the University of Lund, and finally at the University of Göteborg, Sweden, demonstrated that the effects of this natural product were due to its depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine from the striatum, as described in the Nobel Lecture by Arvid Carlsson.3 This led to several key observations, including the discovery by Oleh Hornykiewicz in Vienna that Parkinson disease (PD) was associated with a loss of striatal dopamine and that many of the motor symptoms of PD could be reversed by administration of the dopamine precursor, L-dopa (see Chapter 19).

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